Connectivity itself is often a need. On the ground, restoring connectivity can mean those in the affected population sharing consumer electronics charging points as well as the restoration of internet access, or encouraging companies like Verizon to bring in mobile network towers to restore data connectivity.

From the perspective of participatory aid, a substantial number of volunteer-driven groups seek to leverage their members’ technology expertise to help formal aid groups and the affected population itself get up and running again. In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, the New York Tech Responds group established a needs request page that provides an overview of the technology services they offered those in need (see Appendix 1).